Follow the link to view a short video of the setup. Chemistry educator. Copyright © 2020 Division of Chemical Education, Inc. of the American Chemical Society. Phenomena involving nuclei are also important to understand, as they explain the formation and abundance of the elements, radioactivity, the release of energy from the sun and other stars, and the generation of nuclear power. To check for understanding, Part 1 ends with asking students to apply their recent knowledge by ranking the surface tension of decane, hexane, octane, and pentane. Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system. The crosscutting concepts of patterns, energy and matter, and stability and change are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension. Into Modeling Instruction. Blue arrows communicate how oppositely charged parts of each molecule are attracted to one another. Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. "Matter and its Interactions help students formulate an answer to the question, “How can one explain the structure, properties, and interactions of matter?” The PS1 Disciplinary Core Idea from the NRC Framework is broken down into three subideas: the structure and properties of matter, chemical reactions, and nuclear processes. Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials (such as graphite). The surface tension results were correlated by a new model obtained from coupling scaled particle theory (SPT) and the MMM equation of state. If you are interested in this activity, check out the Pivot Interactives website! This page provides supplementary chemical data on n-pentane. After completing this activity and allocating appropriate time for discussion during and after, there seemed to be a noticeable difference in comprehension and overall confidence with this abstract concept. The crosscutting concepts of patterns, energy and matter, and stability and change are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. Thanks for sharing! Additionally, since octane has a higher surface tension, they soon discover the macroscopic effects of having different surface tensions. The last part of this activity introduces students to the concept of hydrogen bonding by looking at how water molecules interact with one another (Figure 7). Students who demonstrate understanding can plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. We found that pentane excretion significantly (P < 0.05, r = 0.32) increased with age. Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Figure 5: Model displaying pentanol and the difference in the magnitude of the dipole that forms on the OH group compared to the momentary dipoles between carbon and hydrogen. Figure 3: Models displaying pentane-pentane and octane-octane interactions. Students are able to use the periodic table as a tool to explain and predict the properties of elements. Considering the foundational role intermolecular forces (IMFs) have when trying to explain and understand chemical phenomena, it is likely that this topic is addressed, to various degrees, in the classrooms of many chemistry teachers. Our readers are most interested in finding activities linked to NGSS, support for teaching AP chemistry, tips to make their labs and classwork more efficient, and help with creating better assessment tools, just to name a few topics. Figure 1: Liquid being stretched by micrometer. Students are able to use the periodic table as a tool to explain and predict the properties of elements. Figure 2: GIF of two liquids in Pivot Interactives activity (Image used with permission from Pivot Interactives). The concept of London dispersion forces is introduced by focusing on the momentary dipoles that appear within each molecule and the effect these forces have on surrounding molecules to account for the differences in attraction. Students are also able to apply an understanding of the process of optimization in engineering design to chemical reaction systems. Is this connected to one of the presentations from last summer? Using a micrometer, a device used to measure small distances or thicknesses between its two faces, a small amount of a certain liquid is placed between a 1 mm gap. After discussing how hydrogen bonds are stronger than the dipole-dipole interactions between the -OH groups of alcohols, students are asked to make and eventually test one last prediction by ranking the surface tension of water, decane, and octanol. *More information about this category of NGSS can be found at https://www.nextgenscience.org/dci-arrangement/hs-ps1-matter-and-its-interactions. Using this expanded knowledge of chemical reactions, students are able to explain important biological and geophysical phenomena.
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